4. -ED Pronunciation
Regular past simple verbs and past perfect verbs, plus some adjectives, end in -ed.
There are three possible pronunciations of -ED.
So many students struggle with -ED pronunciation, but I have a really simple way of learning how to instantly know which ending to use.
If a root word ends in /t/ or /d/ - like
Then the -ed ending is pronounced /ɪd/
- parted - /’pɑːtɪd/
- ended /’endɪd/
- tested /’testɪd/
- needed /’niːdɪd/
If the root word doesn’t end in /t/ or /d/ - does it end in a vowel or a voiced consonant? Does it end with voice? (This means you can feel the vibrations in your throat when you come to finish saying the word.) We match voiced with voiced.
If this applies to the root verb, then -ed is pronounced /d/
- dined - /daɪnd/
- loved - /lʌvd/
- complied - /kəmˈplaɪd/
- remembered - /rɪˈmembəd/ (remember that if a word ends with r, it is not pronounced)
If the root verb ends with an unvoiced consonant sound, then -ed is pronounced /t/. We match unvoiced with unvoiced (otherwise it would be very hard to say!)
- clapped - /klæpt/
- kicked - /kɪkt/
- danced - /dɑːnst/
- washed - /wɒʃt/
This rule also applies to adjectives, but there are many more exceptions:
Ending in /t/ or /d/ - /ɪd/
insulted - /ɪnˈsʌltɪd/
beaded - /ˈbiːdɪd/
Voiced consonant/vowel /d/:
soothed - /suːðd/
moved - /muvd/
unvoiced consonant /t/:
distressed - /dɪˈstrest/
astonished - /əˈstɒnɪʃt/
There are lots of irregular adjectives that are pronounced with /ɪd/ instead of /d/ or /t/.
Most have a /g/ or /k/ sound, but there are exceptions to the exceptions!